General Philip Sheridan was
commander of the army forces in the west. He wrote that he did not blame
the Native Americans for making war after the way they were treated. White men
slaughtered the buffalo. Railroad crews killed many buffalo just for
sport. By 1865 about 15 million animals lived on the plains. By 1883 the
buffalo were all but wiped out.
In 1864 at Sand Creek in Colorado,
Colonel Chivington and his soldiers called the Colorado Volunteers
attacked the Native Americans. In return the Indians attacked the white settlers.
Colonel Chivington and his men pulled a surprise raid on the village.
Chief Black Kettle, the chief of the tribe, raised the American flag and a
white flag of truce. The soldiers did not pay any attention to this. More than 200
women and children and about 70 men were killed. The Cheyenne agreed to
give up Sand Creek and move to a reservation.
General Armstrong Custer
|In 1876 gold was found in the
Black Hills. The Native Americans were ordered to leave. Sitting Bull and Crazy
Horse refused. George Armstrong Custer and 265 men attacked against orders
at a place called Little Big Horn. All the white men were killed. Finally
Crazy Horse and his warriors gave up. Sitting Bull and his followers went
to Canada. In 1881, they returned to the United States and surrendered to
In 1889, a Paiute Indian named
Wovoka said an Indians' god leader was coming to bring back the buffalo
and the white men would disappear. Many Native Americans believed this. To show
their belief, they did a certain dance called the Ghost Dance. On December
29, 1890, the army moved to stop the Ghost Dancers at Wounded Knee
Creek in South Dakota. The Indians were waiting to surrender. The army
never got the message, so they attacked. More than 300 men, women, and
children were killed. This was the end of the Indian Wars.