Technology During the Middle Ages


Although the Middle Ages is known as a backward period in history, many inventions greatly changed the lives of the European people.


Year Developed Invention
700 Stirrups - The first stirrups was invented in the far East in about the second century BC. They  reached Western Europe in the eighth century by way of Byzantium.
900 Horseshoes
900 Horsecollar - followed by the moldboard turning plow in the 11th century, vastly improved agricultural output
Wheelbarrow - developed after the horsecollar and stirrup. With a wheelbarrow man could move several times his own weight.
Four-Wheeled Wagon
1180 Rudder
Wind and Water Power - were being used more and more for power. Mills were built to pump water, grind grain, and crush ore.
1185 Windmill - the earliest written record of a windmill's existence in England is a rental note for a mill in Weedly, Yorkshire dated 1185
1200 Wheelbarrow
1270 Paper - manufactured in Italy
Spinning Wheel - brought to Europe, probably from India in the 13th century, made homespun clothing available to all. Before this invention spinning thread had been done by hand. The spinning wheel was foot powered.
1283 Magnetic Compass
1285 Eyeglasses - made in Italy
1320 Small Cannon - invented after gunpowder was brought to Europe from China