Christopher Booker’s book The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories outlines seven plots. One of these seven is ‘Tragedy.’ Opposite of ‘Overcoming the Monster,’ the hero does not reach his goal. The inner conflict is not solved. The story ends unhappily.
To begin with, the hero is part of a community. He has connections and relationships. This may be friendships, family, or marriage. A fatal flaw in the hero’s nature causes good intentions to fail. The hero breaks the bonds of loyalty with others. He makes a great mistake. Step by step the hero is separated from others. When the hero becomes aware of the mistake, his life is basically destroyed. This results in a fall of a good character. The final result is frequently death.