on the Mississippi
capturing Fort Henry along the Tennessee River the Union army with
15,000 men led by Ulysses S. Grant attacked Fort Donelson, a
Confederate fort on the Cumberland River. At Fort Donelson Grant sent
the message, "No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender
can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works." The
North had six gunboats. The fighting lasted three days. Grant took
12,000 Confederate prisoners and 40 cannons from Fort Donelson. This
cut off the Confederate supply line from the western territories.
first time in history two ironclad ships battled. The battle lasted
for about 4 hours. Neither side won the battle. The Confederate
ironclad was an old wooden ship called the Merrimac which had
been rebuilt with iron all around the boat then renamed the
Virginia. The Merrimac had sunk several Union ships in
the past months. The North decided to build an ironclad ship to fight
it. The Northern ship was called the Monitor.
Grant had captured several forts in Tennessee his armies moved south
toward Mississippi. The Confederate Army led by General Albert Sidney
Johnston, met Grant at Shiloh, Tennessee. Grant had not expected the
attack which started while the Yankee soldiers were cooking their
breakfast. At first Grant seemed to be losing. Then more Northern
troops arrived and Grant defeated the Southerners.
(Johnston was wounded in the leg and bled to death before medical help
came. P. G. T. Beauregard took command after Johnston was wounded.)
Confederate Army Calls for Men
between the ages of 18 and 35 must serve in the army.
attacked and captured New Orleans.
McClellan's Union troops occupied Yorktown, Virginia and advanced on
army occupy Corinth, Mississippi
fell to the Union armies
series of battles the Southern army led by Generals Joseph E. Johnston
and Robert E. Lee, the South managed to drive back the Union army. The
battles ended at Malvern Hill on July 1. Lee breaks McClellan siege of
Richmond. The Union Army returned to Washington.
Battle at Bull Run
The Union led by General John Pope was defeated at Bull Run Creek
while trying to reach Richmond. The Union army retreated to Washington.
J. E. B. Stuart broke
into the Union headquarters and captured a case containing more than
$300,000 (worth $5 million today). Lincoln relieved Pope of his
of Antietam - Sharpsburg, Maryland
command telling the Confederate forces that he planned to carry the
fight to the enemy. Lee gave each division a route and job to do. One
copy of Lee's plan ended up with the Union Army. Therefore when Lee
crossed the Potomac River into Maryland, he was blocked from
Washington, D. C. by Union troops in a bloody battle at Sharpsburg
near Antietam Creek. Lee realized that his army was in a bad position
to receive supplies and withdrew his troops over the Potomac to
Frees all the Slaves
President issued a proclamation freeing all the slaves in the South.
Lincoln's document called the Emancipation Proclamation because it
emancipated the slaves.
forces ended Bragg's invasion of Kentucky in the Battle of Perryville.
replaced General McClellan with Ambrose Burnside. Burnside's men were
slaughtered at Fredericksburg.